L’incubo della disuguaglianza

ABU DHABI – Come disse, notoriamente, l’economista nigeriano Sam Aluko nel 1999: “I poveri non riescono a dormire, perché hanno fame, ed i ricchi non riescono a dormire perché i poveri sono svegli e affamati.” Le disparità del reddito e della ricchezza hanno un impatto su tutti in quanto il sistema politico ed economico dal quale dipende la nostra prosperità non può continuare ad arricchire solo alcuni impoverendo allo stesso tempo altri.

Nei periodi difficili, i poveri perdono la fiducia nei loro leader e nel sistema economico, mentre nei periodi tranquilli sono pochi coloro che ne traggono beneficio. Il coefficiente di Gini, indicatore della disuguaglianza economica, è da diversi anni in aumento sia nei paesi in via di sviluppo che in quelli sviluppati, compresi gli Stati Uniti. In Europa, le disuguaglianze si sono intensificate a causa del rapido aumento della disoccupazione, in particolar modo tra i giovani. Alcuni hanno reagito con le proteste, altri hanno iniziato a sostenere i partiti politici xenofobi di estrema destra, altri ancora stringono i pugni in silenzio con un crescente risentimento verso i politici ed il sistema che essi rappresentano.

Il problema è più forte nelle grandi metropoli del mondo che rappresentano circa l’80% del PIL globale. Ma anche nelle città più sviluppate le disuguaglianze possono essere marcate. Se si prende la metropolitana a Londra, ad esempio, e ci si allontana di circa sei miglia (ovvero 14 fermate) da Westminster, centro del governo, verso Canning Town, nell’area est della città, l’aspettativa di vita degli abitanti diminuisce di sei mesi ad ogni fermata.

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