不平等的噩梦

阿布扎比——1999年,尼日利亚经济学家萨姆·阿鲁科曾说过这样的名言, “穷人因为饥饿而无法入睡,而富人则因为穷人饿着肚子无法入睡而睡不着。”没有人能够逃脱收入和深层次财富不平等的影响,因为人类繁荣所依赖的政治经济制度不可能无休止地让某些人越来越富,而让其他人越来越穷。

困难时期穷人对本国领袖和经济制度失去信心;而经济向好时,也没有多少人能分得一杯羹。多年来,衡量经济不平等的基尼系数在发展中国家和发达国家(包括美国在内)都一路上升。欧洲失业率(特别是年轻人的失业率)急剧上升导致不平等现象加剧。有人的反应是参与骚乱;有人支持极右翼的排外政党;而更多人则默默压抑着怒火,对政治家及其所代表制度不满的情绪越来越强。

问题最为鲜明是占全球GDP 80%的世界特大城市。但即使最发达城市贫富差距也非常显著。比方说,当你搭乘伦敦地铁从政府中心区威斯敏斯特向东前往仅仅6英里(约为14站)开外的坎宁镇,地面居民的平均寿命每站都会缩短6个月。

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