O Congresso de Viena revisitado

PARIS – Há duzentos anos, em 25 de Setembro de 1814, o Czar Alexandre I da Rússia e Friedrich Wilhelm III, Rei da Prússia, foram recebidos às portas de Viena pelo Imperador Franz I da Áustria. O início do Congresso de Viena deu lugar ao mais longo período de paz que a Europa vivera em séculos. Se assim é, por que motivo o aniversário do evento foi completamente ignorado?

É certo que o Congresso de Viena é sobretudo visto como o marco que assinala a vitória das forças reaccionárias europeias após a derrota de Napoleão. No entanto, tendo em conta o contexto actual de crescente confusão, ou mesmo caos, em todo o mundo, um sentimento de nostalgia “proustiana” pelo Congresso poderá não ser descabido. Tratou-se, apesar de tudo, de uma reunião que, por meio de negociações difíceis, mas bem-sucedidas, restabeleceu a ordem internacional após as convulsões geradas pela Revolução Francesa e as guerras napoleónicas. Será possível aplicar actualmente alguma das lições extraídas do Congresso?

Para responder a esta pergunta, devemos considerar não apenas o Tratado de Viena de 1815, mas também a paz de Vestefália de 1648 e o Tratado de Versalhes de 1919, cada um dos quais, a seu modo, contribuiu para pôr termo a um capítulo sangrento da história da Europa.

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