La leçon du Congrès de Vienne

PARIS – Il y a exactement deux siècles, le 25 septembre 1814, le tsar de Russie Alexandre Ier et le roi de Prusse Frédéric-Guillaume III étaient accueillis aux portes de Vienne par l'empereur d'Autriche François Ier. C'était le début du Congrès de Vienne qui a marqué le commencement de la plus longue période de paix que l'Europe ait connu depuis des siècles.  Pourquoi alors cet anniversaire passe-t-il presque inaperçu ?

Il est vrai que l'on considère souvent le Congrès de Vienne comme un symbole de la victoire des forces réactionnaires en Europe après la défaite de Napoléon. Néanmoins, étant donné la confusion si ce n'est le chaos qui règne un peu partout, une sorte de nostalgie "proustienne" pour ce Congrès aurait peut-être son utilité. A l'issue de négociations rudes, il a permis de rétablir un ordre international après les soulèvements liés à la Révolution française et aux guerres napoléoniennes. Pouvons-nous en tirer des leçons ?

Pour répondre à cette question, il faut examiner non seulement le Traité de Vienne de 1815, mais aussi les Traités de Westphalie de 1648 et le Traité de Versailles qui ont chacun à sa manière propre mis fin à un chapitre sanglant de l'Histoire européenne.

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.


Log in;
  1. An employee works at a chemical fiber weaving company VCG/Getty Images

    China in the Lead?

    For four decades, China has achieved unprecedented economic growth under a centralized, authoritarian political system, far outpacing growth in the Western liberal democracies. So, is Chinese President Xi Jinping right to double down on authoritarianism, and is the “China model” truly a viable rival to Western-style democratic capitalism?

  2. The assembly line at Ford Bill Pugliano/Getty Images

    Whither the Multilateral Trading System?

    The global economy today is dominated by three major players – China, the EU, and the US – with roughly equal trading volumes and limited incentive to fight for the rules-based global trading system. With cooperation unlikely, the world should prepare itself for the erosion of the World Trade Organization.

  3. Donald Trump Saul Loeb/Getty Images

    The Globalization of Our Discontent

    Globalization, which was supposed to benefit developed and developing countries alike, is now reviled almost everywhere, as the political backlash in Europe and the US has shown. The challenge is to minimize the risk that the backlash will intensify, and that starts by understanding – and avoiding – past mistakes.

  4. A general view of the Corn Market in the City of Manchester Christopher Furlong/Getty Images

    A Better British Story

    Despite all of the doom and gloom over the United Kingdom's impending withdrawal from the European Union, key manufacturing indicators are at their highest levels in four years, and the mood for investment may be improving. While parts of the UK are certainly weakening economically, others may finally be overcoming longstanding challenges.

  5. UK supermarket Waring Abbott/Getty Images

    The UK’s Multilateral Trade Future

    With Brexit looming, the UK has no choice but to redesign its future trading relationships. As a major producer of sophisticated components, its long-term trade strategy should focus on gaining deep and unfettered access to integrated cross-border supply chains – and that means adopting a multilateral approach.

  6. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now