La leçon du Congrès de Vienne

PARIS – Il y a exactement deux siècles, le 25 septembre 1814, le tsar de Russie Alexandre Ier et le roi de Prusse Frédéric-Guillaume III étaient accueillis aux portes de Vienne par l'empereur d'Autriche François Ier. C'était le début du Congrès de Vienne qui a marqué le commencement de la plus longue période de paix que l'Europe ait connu depuis des siècles.  Pourquoi alors cet anniversaire passe-t-il presque inaperçu ?

Il est vrai que l'on considère souvent le Congrès de Vienne comme un symbole de la victoire des forces réactionnaires en Europe après la défaite de Napoléon. Néanmoins, étant donné la confusion si ce n'est le chaos qui règne un peu partout, une sorte de nostalgie "proustienne" pour ce Congrès aurait peut-être son utilité. A l'issue de négociations rudes, il a permis de rétablir un ordre international après les soulèvements liés à la Révolution française et aux guerres napoléoniennes. Pouvons-nous en tirer des leçons ?

Pour répondre à cette question, il faut examiner non seulement le Traité de Vienne de 1815, mais aussi les Traités de Westphalie de 1648 et le Traité de Versailles qui ont chacun à sa manière propre mis fin à un chapitre sanglant de l'Histoire européenne.

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