La paradoja africana

PARÍS – A principios de febrero comenzó en París el juicio de Pascal Simbikangwa, acusado de complicidad en el genocidio de Ruanda, en el que 800.000 personas fueron asesinadas entre abril y julio de 1994. Desafortunadamente, los asesinatos masivos continúan en África. En Sudán del Sur, el estado más nuevo de África, todavía tienen lugar masacres de civiles, particularmente alrededor de la ciudad de Bor. Y la intervención militar francesa en la República Centroafricana no puso fin a la violencia intercomunal severa que se produce allí.

Sin embargo, paradójicamente, incluso cuando este tipo de episodios siguen ocurriendo en África, quizás en una escala mayor que en cualquier otra parte del mundo, el continente también se ha convertido en un faro de esperanza. De hecho, la perpetuación de la extrema violencia contrasta marcadamente con el perfil demográfico favorable de África y su progreso económico -y hasta político y social­- en los últimos años.

Una manera de analizar esta paradoja es en términos del cierre de un paréntesis de cuatro siglos. Desde el siglo XVII, África ha sido principalmente un objeto de la historia. Su pueblo primero fue tratado por el comercio de esclavos como una simple mercancía, necesaria para el crecimiento económico en otras partes. Luego las potencias coloniales se repartieron el continente artificial y arbitrariamente, ocultando su ambición detrás de objetivos supuestamente nobles: la suya era una misión "civilizadora".

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