O Paradoxo Africano

PARIS – No início do passado mês de Fevereiro, começou em Paris o julgamento de Pascal Simbikangwa, acusado de cumplicidade no genocídio do Ruanda, onde 800.000 pessoas foram mortas entre Abril e Julho de 1994. Infelizmente, os assassínios em massa subsistem em África. No Sudão do Sul, o mais novo estado de África, ainda ocorrem massacres de civis, especialmente nas redondezas da cidade de Bor. E a intervenção militar Francesa na República Centro-Africana não pôs um fim à severa violência sectária que aí acontece.

Contudo, paradoxalmente, mesmo enquanto esses episódios continuam a ocorrer em África, talvez numa escala maior do que em qualquer outra parte do mundo, o continente também se transformou num farol de esperança. Na verdade, a perpetuação da violência extrema contrasta grandemente com o perfil demográfico favorável de África, e com o seu progresso económico – e mesmo político e social – em anos recentes.

Um modo de pensar sobre este paradoxo é em termos do fecho de um parêntesis de quatro séculos. Desde o século XVII, a África tem sido principalmente um objecto da história. Os seus povos foram inicialmente tratados pelo comércio esclavagista como meras mercadorias, necessárias ao crescimento económico de outras paragens. De seguida, as potências coloniais talharam o continente de um modo artificial e arbitrário, mascarando a sua cobiça com objectivos aparentemente nobres: a sua era uma missão “civilizadora”.

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