Un desarrollo mejor

CAMBRIDGE.– El nombramiento de Jim Yong Kim como presidente de Banco Mundial puede haber sido predecible, dada la tradición de larga data que convierte la selección en una prerrogativa estadounidense. Pero incluso la competencia entre Kim y los otros candidatos, Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala y José Antonio Ocampo, sirvió para exponer una profunda fisura en el campo de la política del desarrollo, ya que Kim y sus rivales representan enfoques radicalmente distintos.

La visión que favorece Kim es de abajo hacia arriba. Se centra directamente en los pobres y la provisión de servicios –por ejemplo, educación, salud y microcréditos– a sus comunidades. El lema de esta tradición podría ser «el desarrollo se logra con un proyecto a la vez».

El otro enfoque, representado por Okonjo-Iweala y Ocampo, se centra en la economía en su conjunto. Enfatiza amplias reformas que afectan el entorno económico general y, por lo tanto, se centra en áreas como el comercio internacional, las finanzas, la macroeconomía y la gobernanza.

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