L'ONU, organisation imparfaite, mais utile

Avec ses 192 membres et un mandat qui couvre pratiquement tout, des questions de sécurité, aux réfugiés, en passant par la santé, l'ONU est la seule organisation internationale de nature aussi globale. Mais d'après des sondages réalisés aux USA, deux tiers des Américains estiment que l'ONU ne fait pas un bon travail. Beaucoup d'entre eux considèrent qu'elle a été affaiblie par la corruption durant la mise en oeuvre du programme "Pétrole contre nourriture" destiné à l'Irak sous Saddam Hussein et lui reprochent de ne pas avoir résolu la myriade de problèmes du Moyen-Orient. Ce point de vue traduit une incompréhension de la nature de l'ONU, car c'est davantage un instrument des Etats qui la compose qu'un acteur indépendant sur la scène internationale.

Le secrétaire général de l'ONU, Ban Ki Moon, peut bien faire des discours, réunir des commissions et proposer des actions, son rôle est plus celui d'un secrétaire que celui d'un général. Parfois comparé à un "pape laïque", il a davantage à sa disposition l'arme légère de la persuasion, que l'artillerie du pouvoir économique ou la puissance militaire.

L'ONU est contrainte de mendier ou d'emprunter de véritables moyens d'action auprès de ses États membres. Et s'ils ne sont pas d'accord, il lui est difficile d'agir. Un aphorisme résume la situation : "Nous avons rencontré l'ONU, c'était nous !" Lorsqu'on critique l'ONU, en fait ce sont les Etats membres qui sont en cause.

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