L'Islam menace-t-il la démocratie ?

L'Islam est-il incompatible avec une démocratie multiculturelle ? De nombreuses personnes soulignent que peu de sociétés musulmanes sont démocratiques et concluent que l'Islam doit donc être par essence antidémocratique. Ils attirent l'attention sur une rhétorique musulmane imprégnée de haine pour l'Occident et en déduisent que les Musulmans ne feraient pas de bons citoyens des démocraties occidentales.

La Grande-Bretagne, avec environ 1,6 millions de Musulmans pour une population de 58,7 millions d'habitants, constitue un endroit parfait pour tester ces notions. Trois quartiers de Musulmans britanniques viennent du sous-continent indien, principalement du Pakistan et du Bengladesh ruraux. Ce fait est important car certaines de leurs difficultés pour s'établir résultent non de la religion, mais d'une inexpérience de la vie moderne.

Jusqu'à présent, la Grande-Bretagne a vécu seulement quatre émeutes musulmanes, contre huit émeutes pour raisons raciales menées par les Africains des Caraïbes. Une de ces émeutes avait pour objet le roman publié par Salman Rushdie, Les versets sataniques ; les autres découlaient de l'insensibilité de la police et de marches organisées par des Blancs racistes. A l'exception de la première, toutes les émeutes étaient locales, relativement secondaires et n'ont duré qu'un jour ou deux. Les Musulmans de Grande-Bretagne n'ont donc occasionné aucun problème majeur en termes de loi et d'ordre.

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