Má hospodářský růst budoucnost?

MILÁN – Co můžeme čekat v době, kdy světová ekonomika vybředává z nejvážnějšího poklesu za poslední téměř století? Stručná odpověď zní „novou normálnost“ charakterizovanou pomalejším růstem, stabilnějším jádrem finančního systému s menším podílem rizik a řadou dodatečných problémů (energie, klima nebo demografické nerovnováhy, abychom jmenovali alespoň několik z nich) s odlišnými časovými horizonty, které otestují naši kolektivní schopnost zlepšit řízení a dohled nad globální ekonomikou.

Ze střednědobého hlediska je nejjistějším tipem nižší růst. Ten se zdá pravděpodobný, ale skutečný vývoj nikdo nezná. Finanční krize, která se rychle proměnila v globální hospodářský pokles, nebyla jen výsledkem neschopnosti reagovat na rostoucí nestabilitu, riziko a nerovnováhu, ale také výsledkem všeobecné předkrizové neschopnosti „vidět“ rostoucí systémové riziko.

Tyto definující charakteristiky budou v následujících letech podmiňovat reakce a výsledky. Působí zde vzájemně se vyvažující síly. Země s vysokým růstem (Čína a Indie) jsou velké a v poměru k ostatním se dále zvětšují. Tato skutečnost bude mít sama o sobě sklon zvyšovat globální růst v porovnání se světem, v němž tahouny růstu představovaly průmyslové země v čele s USA.

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