Má kapitalismus budoucnost?

NEW YORK – Rok 2008 se chýlí ke konci a mnoho Evropanů začalo hovořit o konci kapitalismu. Zapomínají, že kapitalismus vampnbsp;Evropě už ve 30. letech jednou ustoupil – mnohdy násilným způsobem – centrálnímu plánování a korporativismu a vampnbsp;80. letech byl oživen pouze vampnbsp;hrstce zemí.

Ve světle současné finanční krize – poslední vampnbsp;řadě krizí, které kapitalismus zažil – je fér klást si otázku, zda výhody kapitalismu, jsou-li jaké, převažují jeho náklady. Ačkoliv se Marx vyznal ze značného obdivu ke kapitalismu, dnes se objevují tvrzení, že to dobré vampnbsp;něm obsažené – totiž podnikatelský duch – lze geneticky upravit vampnbsp;jiný typ systému, a to bez destruktivity, kampnbsp;níž je kapitalismus náchylný.

Kapitalismus byl zpočátku obdivován za to, že je „progresivní“, jak to formuloval Marx. Jakmile jednou vzrostla produktivita, už znovu neklesla. A když se kolem roku 1820 začal postupně rodit finanční kapitalismus, nastal vzestup produktivity vampnbsp;jedné evropské zemi za druhou – ve Velké Británii, Belgii, Francii, Německu a Rakousku. Produktivita se ještě více zrychlila i ve Spojených státech, kde začala růst už dříve. Skrovná historická data, která jsou kampnbsp;dispozici pro analýzu, naznačují, že zhruba kolem roku 1820 nabraly podobný směr také mzdy (očištěné o inflační vzedmutí vampnbsp;předchozích desetiletích i o deflaci vampnbsp;desetiletích následujících).

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