Hagan lo que nosotros hicimos, no lo que decimos

Hoy en día, se les dice a muchos mercados emergentes, desde Indonesia hasta México, que existe cierto código de conducta al que se deben apegar si quieren ser exitosos. El mensaje es claro: esto es lo que hacen y han hecho los países industrializados avanzados. Si ustedes quieren entrar al club, tienen que hacer lo mismo. Las reformas serán dolorosas, los intereses creados se resistirán, pero con la suficiente voluntad política, ustedes cosecharán los beneficios.

Cada país hace una lista de lo que debe hacer, y cada gobierno debe rendir cuentas en términos de su desempeño. En todos los países, equilibrar el presupuesto y controlar la inflación están en los primeros lugares de la lista, pero también ocupan un lugar preponderante las reformas estructurales. En el caso de México, por ejemplo, abrir el sector de la energía eléctrica, que la constirución del país reserva al gobierno, se ha convertido en la reforma estructural de moda que exige Occidente. Así, los analistas (en forma insensata, me atrevería a decir) felicitan a México por sus logros en el control del presuspuesto y la inflación, pero lo critican por la falta de avances en la reforma del sector eléctrico.

Como persona que estuvo involucrada íntimamente en el diseño de la política económica estadounidense, siempre me ha llamado la atención la diferencia entre las políticas que este país busca imponer sobre las naciones en desarrollo y aquéllas que se practican en el propio Estados Unidos. Además, Estados Unidos no es el único: la mayoría de los demás países en desarrollo y desarrollados exitosos ponen en marcha políticas "herejes" similares.

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