von Donna Dickenson

Seit die ersten genetischen Tests für den persönlichen Gebrauch vor drei Jahren im Internet auftauchten, haben Kritiker ihre Bedenken hinsichtlich der potenziellen Auswirkungen auf Patienten und deren Familien sowie auch im Hinblick auf die Genauigkeit dieser Tests geäußert. Manche sind der Ansicht, bei diesen Tests handle es sich um „genetische Horoskope“, deren Wissenschaftlichkeit eben dem eines Horoskops entspricht. Derartige Bedenken führten dazu, dass persönliche Gentests in einigen US-Bundesstaaten sowie auch in Ländern wie Frankreich und Deutschland verboten wurden.

Diese persönlichen Gentests unterscheiden sich von Hersteller zu Hersteller. Auf der einen Seite gibt es Firmen, die Tests für rezessiv vererbte Gene für rote Haare oder im Bereich Sexualchemie anbieten. Ein Unternehmen namens Scientific Match testet ein paar Gene im Zusammenhang mit der Immunantwort eines Menschen. Dadurch will man die Kunden mit Partnern zusammenführen kann, deren genetische Ausstattung ihnen ein besseres Sexualleben verspricht und den Kindern eine verbesserte natürliche Immunantwort.  

Am anderen Ende des Spektrums finden sich Firmen wie Navigenics und 23andMe, mit deren Tests man seine genetische Prädisposition für eine breite Palette von Krankheiten wie Alzheimer, Brustkrebs oder Diabetes eruieren kann.

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