Die Sicherung der Olympischen Spiele in Sotschi

MOSKAU – Als der russische Präsident Wladimir Putin 2007 nach Guatemala-Stadt reiste, um die Bewerbung seines Landes für die Olympischen Winterspiele in Sotschi zu unterstützten, wusste er, dass die Vergabe der Spiele an Russland der einfachste Schritt in dem Prozess werden würde. Viele scherzten, dass nur Russland einen subtropischen Badeort am Meer als Austragungsort für einen Wintersport-Wettkampf vorschlagen würde. Doch während Befürchtungen, es könne zu wenig Schnee in den Bergen der Umgebung liegen, oder darüber, ob Russland in der Lage sei, rechtzeitig die benötigte Infrastruktur zu bauen, allmählich abgenommen haben, seit Russland den Zuschlag für die Spiele bekam, ist eine große Furcht geblieben: die Bedrohung durch den Terrorismus.

Sotschi liegt in der Region Nordkaukasus, die nach der Auflösung der Sowjetunion lange und brutale bewaffnete Aufstände in Tschetschenien erlebte, während insbesondere das benachbarte Dagestan später zu einer Brutstätte für den islamistischen Extremismus und Terrorismus wurde. Tatsächlich gewann Putin die Unterstützung weiter Teile der russischen Bevölkerung durch sein entschlossenes und schonungsloses Vorgehen gegen den Separatismus im Nordkaukasus – diese Unterstützung trug dazu bei, den damaligen Präsidenten Boris Jelzin davon zu überzeugen, Putin 1999 zu seinem Nachfolger zu ernennen.

Sobald Putin im Amt war, schaffte er es – mit einem militärischen Sieg und einer Politik der Versöhnung – Tschetschenien zu befrieden, wonach es nun eher einem feudalen Khanat gleicht, das mit Russland verbunden ist, als einem echten Teil der russischen Föderation. Das Ergebnis war Frieden mit – und innerhalb – Tschetscheniens in den letzten zwölf Jahren.

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