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La regulación de la brecha digital internacional

LONDRES – La creciente digitalización de la economía global está cambiando la forma de producción, distribución y venta de productos y servicios a través de las fronteras. Tecnologías como la computación en nube, la inteligencia artificial, los sistemas autónomos y los “dispositivos inteligentes” engendran nuevas industrias y revolucionan las que ya había.

Pero a pesar de los importantes beneficios que pueden traer estos cambios, la velocidad de la digitalización también crea enormes desafíos de gobernanza, en los planos intra e internacional. Los nuevos procesos posibilitados por la digitalización ponen a prueba las normativas globales actuales, incorporadas en acuerdos de comercio e inversión multilaterales, regionales y bilaterales.

Esto crea más margen para la intervención de los gobiernos nacionales en la economía digital. China, por ejemplo, estableció una industria digital propia apelando a políticas como el filtrado de Internet, la localización de datos (exigir a las empresas de Internet que almacenen los datos en servidores locales) y la transferencia tecnológica obligatoria como modo de impulsar el desarrollo digital. Esto sirvió de base a la aparición de importantes empresas digitales chinas como Tencent y Baidu, pero a menudo tuvo efectos adversos sobre la libertad de expresión y acceso a la información.

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