L'Amérique n'est pas responsable de l'échec du cycle de Doha

Il est consternant de voir le monde entier blâmer les USA pour l'échec le mois dernier des négociations sur le commerce mondial (le cycle de Doha) entamées il y a cinq ans. Je suis le premier à admettre que sous la direction du président Bush, les USA n'ont guère brillé en matière de multilatéralisme ces dernières années, mais accuser pour autant l'Amérique d'avoir saboté les négociations commerciales est proprement inacceptable.

Personne n'a remarqué que depuis une décennie, le déficit de la balance commerciale américaine est de quelques centaines de milliards de dollars ? Peut-on croire sérieusement que l'Amérique a creusé ce déséquilibre colossal en fermant ses portes aux produits étrangers ?

Bien au contraire, en raison de taxes de douane modestes et du peu de restriction en matière d'importation, les USA se sont transformés en une sorte de centre commercial regorgeant de produits importés. Les Américains achètent davantage de réfrigérateurs, de voitures, de vêtements, d'ordinateurs étrangers, etc. que tout autre peuple. Heureusement pour les exportateurs étrangers, cet appétit de consommation est dirigé tout azimut, c'est d'ailleurs ce qui explique qu'une énorme proportion d'Américains (deux tiers d'entre eux) souffrent de surcharge pondérale ou d'obésité. Tant et si bien que depuis le début de cette décennie, ni la récession, ni les ouragans, ni la hausse faramineuse du prix du pétrole n'ont calmé cette frénésie d'achats.

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