Diktátoři na lavici obžalovaných

NEW YORK: Britští soudci ze Sněmovny lordů začnou tento týden znovu projednávat (poté, co zpackali první pokus), zda-li by měl být generál Augusto Pinochet nadále v zemi zadržován pro případné vydání do Španělska. Případ vyvolal mnoho diskusí na téma amnestií, jakou si Pinochet sám sobě před mnoha lety udělil.

Někteří komentátoři, od liberálního polského ex-disidenta Adama Michnika po ultrakonservativního amerického senátora Jesse Helmse, jsou proti obžalování Pinocheta na základě toho, že pokud nebude takovým diktátorům umožněn odchod z politické scény bez ohrožení jejich beztrestnosti, nebude vůbec možné je přesvědčit, aby se vzdali moci.

V případě Pinocheta zle nalézt jeden ahistorický aspekt této argumentace. Pinochet neabdikoval dobrovolně. Neměl na výběr. Po uchvácení moci v září roku 1973, po mučení a zavraždění tisíců lidí v procesech při upevňování své moci, potřeboval Pinochet ukotvit také svoji legitimitu, a to na domácí půdě i v zahraničí. A tak diktátor vyhlásil v roce 1980 ústavu, která požadovala, aby bylo jeho setrvání ve funkci presidenta o osm let později předmětem plebiscitu. Tento plebiscit byl naplánován na 5. října 1988, až patnáct let po Pinochetově puči.

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