Диагноз как общественная политика

Думая о медицинском диагнозе, мы обычно обращаемся к науке. Согласно общепринятому (и правильному) мнению, в основе наименований и классификации заболеваний находятся научные исследования. Например, пересмотр каждые десять лет Международной классификации болезней (МКБ) Всемирной организации здравоохранения частично отражает прогресс в научном понимании болезней и травм.

Название и каталогизация болезней является условием научного исследования, а также его результатом. Действительно, как могут врачи объяснить и контролировать болезнь без общего для всех названия явления, которое они наблюдают? МКБ охватывает весь спектр человеческих болезней и травм, а ее новые издания отражают новые знания и создают почву для следующей волны медицинских открытий.

Но у официальной классификации болезней есть еще один аспект, касающийся целого ряда важных социальных функций. МКБ – это сборник названий болезней и их цифровые коды, использующиеся при выделении средств и контроле расходов на здравоохранение. Правительства, страховые компании и пациенты используют эти названия и коды в бухгалтерии и при планировании бюджета.

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