当诊断成为公共政策

每当我们想起医学诊断,我们通常是站在科学的角度。常规(且精确)的公认说法是,根据科学研究来命名并分类疾病。举例而言,大约每十年一次的世界卫生组织《国际疾病分类标准》(ICD)的修订就从某一个角度反映了在对疾病和损伤科学性理解方面的进步。

疾病的分类和命名是科学研究、同样也是科学成果的条件之一。的确,如果医生没有一种通用语言来描述他们所观察到的现象,他们怎能解释并控制疾病呢?ICD包含了所有人类疾病和损伤种类,它的更新不仅反映了最新尖端知识,也酝酿了医学进步的下一浪潮。

但是疾病的正式分类还有另外一个方面,它关系到许多重要社会职能。它为分配及追踪健康医疗开销和服务提供了全套疾病名字和数字代码。政府、保险公司和病人在记账与制定预算时也使用这些名字和代码。

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