El desarrollo después de 2015

PARÍS – Ya estamos a mitad de camino para el cumplimiento en 2015 de los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio (ODM), el ambicioso proyecto, respaldado por toda la comunidad del desarrollo, en pro del desarrollo en los países más pobres del mundo. A raíz de la crisis financiera mundial, que está a punto de afectar al mundo en desarrollo, es el momento de formular las preguntas apropiadas sobre el compromiso de la comunidad internacional con vistas a alcanzar dichos objetivos.

Lamentablemente, sabemos que la mayoría de los países no cumplirán los objetivos en 2015 y las crisis alimentaria y financiera amenazan con contrarrestar los avances recientes. Si se alcanza el objetivo de reducción de la pobreza mundial, se deberá al elevado crecimiento en países en ascenso, como, por ejemplo, China o la India, y no a una disminución de la pobreza absoluta en los países más necesitados.

Resulta preocupante, porque es un síntoma de dos males más importantes. En primer lugar, la comunidad internacional parece padecer una esquizofrenia: mientras que todos los países afirman solemnemente su compromiso con los ODM, pocos han proporcionado los medios para alcanzarlos. La realidad es que la ayuda aumentó sólo ligeramente en el período 2000-2006: en vista de la condonación en gran escala de deuda, el importante aumento en la asistencia oficial para el desarrollo no se plasmó en nuevos fondos disponibles en el terreno.

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