Objectif développement: dépasser l’horizon de 2015

PARIS – Les Objectifs du millénaire pour le développement (OMD) en sont aujourd’hui à la moitié du chemin qu’ils ont à parcourir jusqu’en 2015, date butoir de cet ambitieux programme qui rallie toute la communauté du développement, en vue d’aider les pays les plus pauvres au développement. Dans le contexte de crise financière mondiale qui risque de frapper les pays en voie de développement, il est opportun nous interroger sur ce que valent les efforts de la communauté internationale pour atteindre ces objectifs.

Malheureusement, nous savons que la plupart des pays ne sera pas en mesure de répondre à ce programme en 2015. Et la crise alimentaire et financière mondiale menace d’en entraver les récents progrès. Si on parvient à réduire la pauvreté mondiale, ce sera au décollage de pays émergents comme la Chine ou l’Inde qu’on le devra plutôt qu’à la baisse de la pauvreté absolue dans les pays les plus démunis.

C’est inquiétant, car c’est le symptôme de deux autres maux plus significatifs. D’abord, il semble que la communauté internationale souffre de schizophrénie: tous les pays jurent de leur engagement envers les OMD et pourtant rares sont ceux qui ont avancé les fonds nécessaires à leur mise en œuvre. En fait, dans la période allant de 2000 à 2006, l’aide n’a que peu augmenté: étant donné d’importantes annulations de dettes, la progression considérable de l'aide publique au développement ne s’est pas traduite sur le terrain par la disponibilité de nouveaux fonds.

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