La financiación de la lucha contra el cambio climático

PARÍS – El cambio climático ya está causando estragos en el mundo en desarrollo. Vietnam, por ejemplo, ha comunicado que los desastres naturales, algunos de ellos exacerbados por el cambio climático, han causado pérdidas anuales equivalentes al dos por ciento de su PIB. En los países dependientes de la agricultura, como Etiopía, unas sequías más largas e inundaciones más frecuentes están amenazando los medios de subsistencia y los suministros alimentarios.

Cuando la comunidad internacional se prepara para la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Climático que se celebrará en París en el próximo mes de diciembre, la determinación y racionalización de las fuentes de financiación para la lucha contra el cambio climático debe ser una de las máximas prioridades. Los bancos de desarrollo, como el Organismo Francés de Desarrollo (AFD, por sus siglas en francés), cuya Directora Gerente soy, están en buenas condiciones para hacer contribuciones.

Para empezar, los bancos de desarrollo pueden financiar proyectos que beneficien al desarrollo y al medio ambiente a la vez. El calentamiento planetario es ahora un factor decisivo que se debe tener en cuenta a la hora de planificar un proyecto de desarrollo. Por ejemplo, los efectos del cambio climático pueden constituir riesgos graves para las infraestructuras: riego agrícola, transporte público o casi cualquier otra. Entretanto, la recaudación de ingresos, objetivo de cualquier empeño en pro del desarrollo, casi siempre entraña un consumo mayor de recursos naturales y energía, cuya consecuencia es más emisiones y un mayor calentamiento.

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