Financer la lutte contre le changement climatique

PARIS – Le changement climatique a déjà des effets dévastateurs dans tous les pays en développement. Le Vietnam a par exemple annoncé que les catastrophes naturelles, aggravées pour certaines par le changement climatique, étaient à l’origine de pertes annuelles équivalant à 2 pour cent de son PIB. Dans les pays dépendant de l’agriculture, comme l’Éthiopie, des sécheresses plus longues et des inondations plus fréquentes menacent les moyens de subsistance et l’approvisionnement alimentaire.

Alors que la communauté internationale se prépare à la Conférence des Nations unies sur les changements climatiques à Paris en décembre prochain, identifier et rationaliser les sources de financement de la lutte contre le changement climatique doit être un objectif prioritaire. Les banques de développement, comme l’Agence française de développement (AFD), dont je suis la directrice, sont bien placées pour contribuer à ce processus.

Tout d’abord, les banques de développement peuvent financer des projets qui bénéficient à la fois au développement et à l’environnement. Le réchauffement climatique mondial est à présent un facteur crucial à prendre en compte lors de la planification de tout projet de développement. Les effets du changement climatique peuvent par exemple présenter des risques importants pour les infrastructures – que ce soit l’irrigation agricole, les transports publics ou à peu près toutes autres infrastructures. En même temps, la hausse des revenus – l’un des objectifs de tout projet de développement – signifie presque toujours une plus grande consommation d’énergies fossiles et des ressources naturelles, provoquant un surcroît d’émissions et une augmentation du réchauffement climatique.

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