البحث عن الدم

واشنطن، العاصمة ــ في أغلب بلدان العالم المتقدمة، بات بوسع المرضى أن يطمئنوا إلى سلامة عمليات نقل الدم. والمشكلة هي أن الحفاظ على إمدادات ثابتة غير ملوثة من الدم الذي يجمع من المتبرعين ليس بالمهمة السهلة دائما. فهل من الممكن أن نضمن إمدادات كافية من الدم المأمون إلى الأبد؟

إن الإمدادات المتوفرة من الدم اليوم، وهي غالباً تأتي من متبرعين، قد تكون ملوثة بفيروس نقص المناعة البشرية (الايدز) وغير ذلك من العوامل المعدية. والدم المتبرع به لابد أن يخزن مبردا، حيث تمتد صلاحية التخزين 28 يوما. ونظراً للخوف من التلوث ــ واهتمام المؤسسة العسكرية بتأمين إمدادات أكثر دواما ــ فإن البحث في البدائل التخليقية (الاصطناعية) كان لفترة طويلة على قائمة الأولويات الطبية.

أثيرت فكرة استخدام بدائل الدم لأول مرة في القرن السابع عشر، ولا تزال تستقطب الباحثين حتى يومنا هذا. وقد تم بالفعل تطوير العديد من المنتجات القادرة على إحداث ثورة في طبق نقل الدم في السعي إلى تأمين بدائل دم من نوع واحد يناسب الجميع ويمكن تخزينه لفترات طويلة، ومن الممكن أن تحل محل نقل الدم التقليدي في الحالات القصوى، مثل ساحة المعركة.

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