Child labor NurPhoto/Getty Images

基本收入能有助于穷国吗?

伯克利—将无条件全民基本收入制度化,以此改造福利国家,这一古老的概念最近成为政治界的时髦想象。左翼将它视为一个简单的、具有潜在完整性的减贫良药。右翼将它视为打破复杂的福利官僚、同时兼顾一些社会转移义务,并且不会显著减弱激励的方法。而在机器人可能取代诸多行业的工人时,它又为惨淡的未来提供了一些保证。但它真的管用吗?

目前,这个问题主要在发达国家被着手解决——并且数字看来情况不妙。尽管据信加拿大、芬兰和荷兰目前都在考虑基本收入的概念,但一些著名的发达国家经济学家警告这完全是不可承受的。比如,在美国,在现行制度下,向每位成年人每年发放10,000美元救济——低于官方单身贫困线——就将耗尽几乎所有联邦税收入。也许正是出于这样的算计,让瑞士选民在本月早些时候的全民公决中一边倒地拒绝了这一概念。

但中低收入国情况如何?事实上,在贫困线较低、现有社会安全网管理起来事倍功半的地方,基本收入在财政上很有可能是可行的——从社会角度更是令人向往。

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/JD5qno3/zh;
  1. Patrick Kovarik/Getty Images

    The Summit of Climate Hopes

    Presidents, prime ministers, and policymakers gather in Paris today for the One Planet Summit. But with no senior US representative attending, is the 2015 Paris climate agreement still viable?

  2. Trump greets his supporters The Washington Post/Getty Images

    Populist Plutocracy and the Future of America

    • In the first year of his presidency, Donald Trump has consistently sold out the blue-collar, socially conservative whites who brought him to power, while pursuing policies to enrich his fellow plutocrats. 

    • Sooner or later, Trump's core supporters will wake up to this fact, so it is worth asking how far he might go to keep them on his side.
  3. Agents are bidding on at the auction of Leonardo da Vinci's 'Salvator Mundi' Eduardo Munoz Alvarez/Getty Images

    The Man Who Didn’t Save the World

    A Saudi prince has been revealed to be the buyer of Leonardo da Vinci's "Salvator Mundi," for which he spent $450.3 million. Had he given the money to the poor, as the subject of the painting instructed another rich man, he could have restored eyesight to nine million people, or enabled 13 million families to grow 50% more food.

  4.  An inside view of the 'AknRobotics' Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

    Two Myths About Automation

    While many people believe that technological progress and job destruction are accelerating dramatically, there is no evidence of either trend. In reality, total factor productivity, the best summary measure of the pace of technical change, has been stagnating since 2005 in the US and across the advanced-country world.

  5. A student shows a combo pictures of three dictators, Austrian born Hitler, Castro and Stalin with Viktor Orban Attila Kisbenedek/Getty Images

    The Hungarian Government’s Failed Campaign of Lies

    The Hungarian government has released the results of its "national consultation" on what it calls the "Soros Plan" to flood the country with Muslim migrants and refugees. But no such plan exists, only a taxpayer-funded propaganda campaign to help a corrupt administration deflect attention from its failure to fulfill Hungarians’ aspirations.

  6. Project Syndicate

    DEBATE: Should the Eurozone Impose Fiscal Union?

    French President Emmanuel Macron wants European leaders to appoint a eurozone finance minister as a way to ensure the single currency's long-term viability. But would it work, and, more fundamentally, is it necessary?

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now