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Crecer en tiempos turbulentos

FORT LAUDERDALE, FLORIDA – Los países en desarrollo se enfrentan a importantes obstáculos para lograr un crecimiento alto y sostenido, sobre muchos de los cuales no tienen control. Además de los vientos de cola que genera el lento crecimiento de las economías avanzadas y las inusuales condiciones monetarias y financieras posteriores a la crisis, están los efectos perturbadores de la tecnología digital, que inevitablemente afectarán la ventaja comparativa de las economías en desarrollo para las actividades manufactureras que requieren mucha mano de obra. Ya que es imposible que estas tendencias se reviertan, la única opción es adaptarse.

La robótica ya ha hecho avances importantes en el ensamblado de productos electrónicos, y es probable que ahora sea el turno de los oficios de coser, que tradicionalmente han sido el primer punto de entrada de muchos países al sistema comercial mundial. A medida que prosiga esta tendencia, irá desapareciendo el imperativo de crear cadenas de suministro basadas en la ubicación de mano de obra relativamente fija y barata, y la producción se acercará al mercado final. Por ejemplo, Adidas ya está construyendo una fábrica en Alemania para la producción robótica de calzado deportivo de alta gama, y tiene planes de abrir otra en Estados Unidos.

Considerando lo anterior, los países en desarrollo deben tomar medidas hoy para adaptar sus estrategias de crecimiento e incluir en su marco de acción los siguientes factores clave.

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