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Quelle stratégie de croissance pour les pays en développement ?

FORT LAUDERDALE, FLORIDE – En recherche d'une croissance durable et rapide, les pays en développement sont confrontés à d'importants obstacles sur lesquels ils n'ont pas toujours prise. Au-delà des difficultés liées à la faible croissance des pays avancés et du contexte anormal de l'après-crise économique et financière, il faut compter avec les technologies digitales qui vont éroder brutalement les avantages comparatifs des pays en développement en terme de production manufacturière à forte intensité de main d'œuvre. Cette évolution étant irréversible, la seule solution est de s'y adapter.

La robotique a déjà largement pénétré l'électronique - et le secteur de la couture (le premier point d'entrée d'un grand nombre de pays dans les échanges internationaux) devrait suivre. Dans ce contexte, les entreprises n'établiront plus systématiquement leurs usines dans des pays où la main d'œuvre est bon marché, mais se rapprocheront de leur clientèle finale. Ainsi Adidas construit déjà une usine en Allemagne où des robots fabriqueront des chaussures de sport sophistiquées et prévoit d'en construire une autre aux USA.

Les pays en développement doivent donc adapter dès à présent leur stratégie de croissance à cette nouvelle donne et prendre en compte plusieurs facteurs clés :

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