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davies51_Adrian-Dennis_Getty-Images_bank-of-england Adrian Dennis/Getty Images

破解生产力难题

发自伦敦——一直以来,所谓的生产力难题都困扰着各主要经济体的经济学家和政策制定者们:当前的每小时产出显著低于(如果2008年前的增长趋势持续)所应该达到的水平。这些数字在经合组织国家中相当碍眼,而英国尤甚。当然经济学家早已对此提出了许多精妙的解释,但仍然没有一个能具备足够说服力以达成共识。

据英国国家统计署统计,2015年法国的每小时产出比以前正常趋势增长率下应得的产出水平低了14%。美国低了9%,德国低了8%,但两国已经是发达经济体中表现最好的国家了(尽管只是相对而言)。如果这个新的较低增长率持续下去,到2021年美国人的平均收入将比自1945年以来保持的约2%的年度生产力增长率下的收入水平低16%。

而英国体现出的是关于该综合征的一项特殊慢性症状。2007年英国的生产率比经合组织的平均水平低9%,到2015年,这一差距扩大到18%。令人震惊的是,英国的每小时生产力比德国低35%,比美国低30%,即便法国人都可以在周五休假的情况下达到英国工人一周的平均生产水平。由此看来,除了影响所有发达经济体的因素之外,英国的管理尤为薄弱。

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