Les obstacles qui s’opposent à la démocratisation arabe

CAMBRIDGE – L’union vénale et contre-nature de l’Occident et du monde arabe contraint ce dernier à vivre sans démocratie. Un camp comme l’autre invoque ce que l’on nomme la “spécifité culturelle” de cette partie du monde. L’Ouest préfère faire des affaires avec un Moyen-Orient post colonial non démocratique, qui lui-même profite du soutien et de la reconnaissance de l’Occident, pour bannir les forces de libération et de démocratisation, quitte à faire le lit de la radicalisation de l’islam.

Cette alliance tient par la grâce de la politique de la carotte et du bâton, pratiquée par les uns comme les autres. Ces dernières années, réformes et démocratie ont été brandies par l’Ouest, le plus souvent comme des menaces: “Aidez-nous en Irak, sinon nous viendrons soutenir la démocratie et les droits de l’homme chez vous.” La réponse des Arabes n’est pas moins menaçante: “Cessez de nous bousculer sur le chapitre des réformes, si vous voulez que nous participions à la ‘guerre contre le terrorisme’!”

Ce chantage prospère sur deux grandes questions: Israël et la montée de mouvements islamistes. Les populations arabes ont, dans leur ensemble, tendance à considérer Israël comme une entité exogène et illégitime, implantée en Palestine par la force, avec le soutien de l’Occident. Si cette façon de voir se trouvait relayée dans un contexte démocratique, et qu’on lui offrait toute latitude de façonner la politique des pays arabes à l’égard d’Israël, les négociations de paix seraient encore plus impossibles qu’aujourd’hui.

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