La fin prochaine de l’Homo Economicus

KIEL – Le monde semble sur le point de connaître une nouvelle grande transformation, avec des changements autrement plus profonds que ceux reflétés par les gros titres sur l’émergence économique de l’Asie ou les conflits au Moyen-Orient. Les changements à venir redéfiniront fondamentalement la nature de nos interactions économiques – ainsi que les dynamiques sociales qui les sous-tendent.

Il s’agit d’une transformation à la mesure du passage, il y a plus de 8000 ans, des sociétés de chasseurs-cueilleurs à des communautés agricoles sédentaires, une évolution qui a plus tard permis l’émergence des cités. Un tournant similaire s’est opéré en Europe au Xe siècle, lorsque la création des guildes – des associations d’artisans de même profession qui contrôlaient l’exercice de leur métier dans les villes – a ouvert la voie à la Révolution industrielle.

Les caractéristiques spécifiques de cette transformation imminente sont encore floues. Elles pourraient comprendre des révolutions dans les biotechnologie, nanotechnologie et technologie numérique, accompagnées de révolutions dans les réseaux sociaux qui aboliront les barrières culturelles et géographiques. Ce qui est toutefois déjà clair est qu’elle provoquera, comme les transformations précédentes, une refonte complète de toutes nos relations économiques et des relations sociales qui les accompagnent.

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