Paul Lachine

La democratización de los objetivos de desarrollo del Milenio

PARÍS – En los días 20 a 22 de septiembre, los dirigentes mundiales se reunirán en Nueva York para alentar los avances con vistas a la consecución de los objetivos de desarrollo del Milenio (ODM) de las Naciones Unidas, un conjunto de ocho objetivos que van de la erradicación de la pobreza extrema y el hambre a la reducción de la mortalidad infantil, pasando por la enseñanza primaria universal, y que se deben alcanzar en 2015. El propósito de la cumbre es el de hacer balance  de los éxitos y los fracasos y pasar a formular “estrategias concretas para la adopción de medidas”, pero esta cumbre haría un gran servicio al mundo entero al reconocer lo que ha salido tal mal en relación con los ODM y elegir un planteamiento radicalmente distinto.

Los ODM, tal como están concebidos actualmente, abordan los síntomas de pobreza y subdesarrollo, pero la mayoríade ellospasan por altolas causas profundas. Señalan a la atención 18 metas en total, aquellas sobre las que resulta más fácil compilar datos, pero a consecuencia de ello los ODM pueden distraer la atención de los mecanismos que producen el subdesarrollo: como el hombre bebido que busca sus llaves bajo el solitario farol de la calle, porque allí hay mejor luz.

En lugar de prometer apoyo a los objetivos humanitarios y lanzar dinero sobre los síntomas de la pobreza, los países ricos deben reconocer la urgencia de la eliminación de los obstáculos al desarrollo que tienen capacidad para abordar. Por ejemplo, todos los años los países en desarrollo pierden 124.000 millones de dólares de ingresos correspondientes a activos depositados en paraísos fiscales en el extranjero. Al no cerrar dichos paraísos fiscales, fomentamos activamente que las minorías dominantes y corruptas de esos países sigan engañando a sus poblaciones.

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