La democratización del capitalismo

El capitalismo es el motor del crecimiento en el mundo. Pero su propio dinamismo -su "destrucción creativa"- suele producir grandes incertidumbres. Las empresas que fracasan quedan arrumbadas para ceder el paso a otras nuevas y mejores y las personas que resultan económicamente menos productivas (con frecuencia sin que sea culpa suya) pueden también verse "descartadas" por el mercado, ver interrumpida su carrera profesional y sus inversiones reducidas a una fracción de su valor anterior.

A esa incertidumbre se han debido las peticiones de que el Estado intervenga y proteja a las personas contra el carácter despiadado del mercado. Muchos países han creado un Estado del bienestar "mixto" -desde el sistema de seguridad social de Bismarck en el siglo XIX hasta las políticas socialdemócratas de la Europa de la posguerra, pasando por el New Deal del decenio de 1930- en el que los gobiernos regulan y atenúan las fuerzas del mercado, al brindar una extensa "red de seguridad" a las personas.

Pero muchos creen que, pese a sus logros, el Estado del bienestar resulta demasiado caro, al atenuar el dinamismo económico. Gracias a la perspectiva que ofrecen las nuevas tecnologías actuales en materia de finanzas e información, algunos de los "fracasos del mercado" que originaron la intervención del Estado en la economía pueden dejar de existir. De hecho, la "destrucción creativa" que hace correr riesgos inaceptables a las personas ya está en condiciones de brindar los medios para atenuar esos mismos riesgos.

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