Die Demokratisierung des Kapitalismus

Der Kapitalismus ist der Wachstumsmotor der Welt. Aber seine Dynamik - seine ,,kreative Zerstörung" - führt zu großen Unsicherheiten. Erfolglose Firmen bleiben auf der Strecke und werden durch neue, bessere Firmen ersetzt. Menschen, die (oftmals ohne eigenes Verschulden) ökonomisch weniger produktiv werden, können vom Markt ,,fallen gelassen" werden, wodurch ihre Karrieren unterbrochen und ihre Vermögensanlagen auf einen Bruchteil ihres ursprünglichen Wertes reduziert werden.

Diese Unwägbarkeiten sind der Ursprung der Forderung nach staatlicher Intervention zum Schutz des Einzelnen vor der Gnadenlosigkeit des Marktes. Angefangen von Bismarcks Sozialversicherungssystem im Deutschland des 19. Jahrhunderts, über den amerikanischen New Deal in den dreißiger Jahren des vorigen Jahrhunderts, bis hin zur sozialdemokratischen Politik im Nachkriegseuropa schufen viele Staaten einen ,,gemischten" Wohlfahrtsstaat, in dem der Staat die Wirkung der Marktkräfte kontrolliert und mildert und so ein ausgedehntes ,,Sicherheitsnetz" für die Bürger schafft.

Trotz aller Errungenschaften auf diesem Gebiet glauben allerdings viele, dass der Preis des Wohlfahrtsstaates zur Dämpfung der wirtschaftlichen Dynamik zu hoch ist. Durch moderne Finanz- und Informationstechnologien ergeben sich neue Perspektiven zur Eliminierung einiger ,,Marktversagen", die staatliche Interventionen verursachten. Tatsächlich liefert die für unannehmbares persönliches Risiko verantwortliche ,,kreative Zerstörung" die Mittel, um genau diese Risiken zu mildern.

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