Alianzas democráticas

Las alianzas extranjeras de los Estados Unidos han llegado a ser una cuestión en debate en este año de campaña para las elecciones presidenciales. El senador John Kerry, el candidato demócrata, ha acusado al Presidente George W. Bush de desatender y ofender a los aliados de los Estados Unidos, en particular en Europa. Según dice, un gobierno de Kerry restaurará el respeto a los Estados Unidos en el mundo.

El antiamericanismo no es nuevo en Europa, pero en el pasado las opiniones sobre los Estados Unidos han sido en general más positivas. Durante la guerra fría los Estados Unidos no sólo aplicaron políticas de amplias miras, como el plan Marshall, sino que, además, representaron la libertad y la democracia.

La admiración de los valores americanos no significa, naturalmente, que otros quieran imitar todas las formas americanas de aplicarlos. Si bien muchos europeos admiran la lealtad de los Estados Unidos a la libertad, prefieren políticas en sus países que suavicen los principios económicos liberales del individualismo con un Estado del bienestar fuerte. Pese a la retórica sobre la Europa "vieja" y la "nueva", al final de la guerra fría las encuestas de opinión mostraron que dos tercios de los checos, polacos, húngaros y búlgaros veían a los EE.UU. como una buena influencia en sus respectivos países, pero menos de la cuarta parte quería importar los modelos económicos americanos.

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