Demokracie na Nilu?

Překvapivé rozhodnutí egyptského prezidenta Husního Mubaraka navrhnout ústavní změnu, která by umožnila přímé a konkurenční prezidentské volby, by se mohlo stát obrovským krokem k demokracii v Egyptě a v arabském světě. Pro obyvatele Západu, pro něž je samozřejmostí pluralistická demokracie, může být těžké pochopit, o jak potenciálně veliký posun jde v zemi uvyklé už přes padesát let na vojenskou vládu.

Za současného systému egyptští občané mohou vystoupit jen jednou za šest let v den prezidentského referenda a říct své ano nebo ne jediné osobě uvedené na prezidentské kandidátce. To vysvětluje, proč někdo jako Mubarak pravidelně získával přes 90% hlasů, třebaže při nevalné volební účasti. Syrským a iráckým samovládcům se s tímto systémem dařilo ještě lépe, a to bezpochyby proto, že požadovali, aby vespodu každého hlasovacího lístku bylo uvedeno jméno a adresa hlasujícího.

Mnozí pozorovatelé už dlouho tvrdí, že demokratizace na Středním východě se daleko nedostane, dokud se do procesu plně nezapojí Egypt. Egypt se nemohl na opravdovou cestu demokratizace vydat, aniž by nejprve nezměnil svou ústavu – je třeba zredukovat faraonské pravomoci prezidenta a zavést omezení jeho pobytu v úřadu. Ostatně Mubarak je prezidentem už 24 let. Prohlášení, že chce konkurenční prezidentské volby je tedy důležitým prvním krokem.

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