尼罗河畔的民主?

埃及总统胡斯尼·穆巴拉克关于修改宪法,从而使总统选举以直接、竞争方式进行的惊人决定,可以说是在埃及和阿拉伯世界的民主道路上迈出了一大步。在多元化民主模式下生活多年的西方人可能很难理解这一举措对于一个50多年持续处于军事统治下的国家来说是一次多么巨大的转变。

在现有的政治体制下,埃及市民只能在每6年举行一次的全民公决仪式上露一面,对唯一的候选人说赞成或者反对。这也是为什么虽然投票者态度冷漠,像穆巴拉克这样的人仍旧能获得超过90%以上选票的原因所在。叙利亚和以色列的强硬派使用这一手段做得更为出色。毫无疑问,原因在于他们要求每一位选举人在所投选票的底部写上自己的名字和地址。

很多人始终认为只有埃及完全参与到中东的民主化进程中去,这一进程才会被快速推进。而埃及若不能首先对其宪法进行修改¾削弱总统的君主权利、限制其任期年限,便不会真正踏上民主化道路。毕竟,今年已经是穆巴拉克当政的第二十四个年头,希望进行公开总统选举的声明迈出了重要的一步。

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