La démocratie aux abois

La marée démocratique descend-elle ? Une décennie auparavant, les gens évoquaient la fin de l'histoire, le triomphe final immuable des marchés libres et de la démocratie. Mais l'opinion publique d'un certain nombre de pays semble désormais prendre parti contre la démocratie, affirme Bronislaw Geremek, ancien ministre des Affaires étrangères de Pologne, qui propose des méthodes susceptibles d'inverser cette tendance.

Huit des pays qui rejoindront l'Union européenne en mai 2004 étaient jusque très récemment gouvernés par des dictatures totalitaires et asservis par une autre nation. Le retour des gouvernements, voulu par la majorité de leurs citoyens, a semblé pendant des décennies un rêve inaccessible dans ces pays, tout comme il demeure un rêve pour les citoyens de Birmanie qui sont dirigés par une junte militaire.

La démocratie a indubitablement rencontré un énorme succès dans le monde entier. Toutefois, et de manière inexplicable, le soutien à la démocratie s'érode dans pratiquement tous les pays du monde entier. Le Pew Global Attitudes Project pour 2003 indique les pays dans lesquels le nombre d'individus reconnaissant l'importance des élections est peu élevé : 28 % en Jordanie, 37 % en Russie, 40 % en Indonésie.

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