Dogs tug of war frisbee TimmyGUNZ/Flickr

Demokratie oder Wachstum?

PRINCETON – Aufgrund der anhaltenden Schwierigkeiten in Europa wird wieder die alte Debatte darüber geführt, welche Regierungsform die besseren wirtschaftlichen Leistungen bringt. Sind autoritäre Regimes mit ihrer Möglichkeit, unpopuläre Entscheidungen durchzusetzen, bei der Erzeugung von Wachstum effektiver? Oder führt die liberale Demokratie mit ihren eingebauten Kontrollmechanismen zu größerem materiellen Wohlstand?

Dies ist eine Diskussion, bei der in den letzten Jahrzehnten mal die eine und mal die andere Seite die Oberhand zu haben schien. In den 1980ern war die wirtschaftliche Leistung in Chile unter der Diktatur von General Augusto Pinochet und in Singapur unter dem freundlicheren, aber trotzdem autoritären Lee Kuan Yew sehr beeindruckend. Die demokratischen Industriestaaten kämpften zu dieser Zeit gegen Rezession und Stagnation.

In Europa führte dies zu dem Begriff der „Eurosklerose“. Politikwissenschaftlern waren damals der Ansicht, Demokratien seien anfällig für wachstumshemmende Interessengruppen. Autoritäre Regimes – zumindest solche, die ihr Land nicht ausplündern – seien besser in der Lage, Maßnahmen durchzusetzen, die zu langfristigem wirtschaftlichen Erfolg führen.

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