Desactivar el arma energética de Rusia

COPENHAGUE – A medida que se acerca del invierno, muchos en Europa Central y del Este recuerdan los problemas causados por Rusia el invierno pasado debido a su deliberado corte del suministro de gas. Fue un duro recordatorio de que hoy el gas es el principal instrumento político del Kremlin en su búsqueda por establecer una esfera de intereses privilegiada en lo que considera como su “vecindario inmediato”. Si se permite que Moscú siga imponiendo sus reglas al suministro energético europeo, el resultado costará caro no sólo a Europa, sino también a Rusia.

Ya es tiempo de que la Unión Europea deje de abordar la energía como un asunto bilateral, en que algunos de los miembros más grandes intentan proteger sus propios y estrechos intereses a costa del bienestar europeo común. La UE necesita con urgencia crear una política energética común y un mercado único para el gas natural. Hasta que ambos se creen, existe un serio riesgo de que Rusia utilice nuevos bloqueos para seguir el tipo de política de “dividir para reinar” que el mundo ha visto desde la llegada de Vladimir Putin al poder.

El gasoducto Nord Stream, que ha de pasar por el fondo del Mar Báltico, es un buen ejemplo de los problemas que todos enfrentan en Europa. Se ha creado como un consorcio ruso-alemán-holandés, pero su control real está en manos del gigante energético Gazprom, con un 51% de las acciones. Nord Stream permitirá a Rusia enviar gas natural directamente a Alemania sin utilizar las actuales conexiones terrestres.

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