Woman standing in forest

REDD+ en París: las manos en la masa

BERLÍN – Hace 30 años la Organización para la Alimentación y la Agricultura de las Naciones Unidas lanzó el Plan de Acción por los Bosques Tropicales, la primera iniciativa global intergubernamental para luchar contra la pérdida de bosques. Desde entonces la deforestación ha seguido su ritmo sin pausa, y no parece que el último esfuerzo internacional por detenerla (conocido como Programa de reducción de emisiones de carbono causadas por la deforestación y la degradación de los bosques, o REDD+) vaya a ser más eficaz. Irónicamente, lejos de proteger los bosques del mundo el resultado más notable de ambos acuerdos ha sido la producción de muchos y muy costosos estudios de consultoría.

REDD+ se creó como parte de la Convención Marco de la ONU sobre el Cambio Climático, y se espera que en la Conferencia de la ONU sobre el Cambio Climático en París se concluyan los detalles del acuerdo para su puesta en práctica. Sin embargo, si los líderes mundiales desean abordar la deforestación seriamente, deberían abandonar el REDD+ y sustituirlo por un mecanismo que enfrente sus causas subyacentes.

Los fallos del REDD+ se revelan en el modo mismo en que aborda el problema que busca solucionar. En la vasta mayoría de sus proyectos se considera a los agricultores y pueblos que viven en zonas boscosas como los principales agentes deforestadores. En los proyectos del REDD parece haber preferencia por la restricción de las prácticas de agricultura tradicional, evitándose al mismo tiempo hacer frente a las verdaderas causas del problema: la expansión de la agricultura industrial, la tala a gran escala y el nivel descontrolado de consumo.

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