Woman standing in forest

Remises des prix REDD+ à Paris

BERLIN – Voilà 30 ans que l’Organisation des Nations Unies pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture a lancé le Plan d’action forestier tropical, la première initiative où participent des États du monde entier pour stopper la réduction du couvert forestier. Depuis lors, la déforestation s’est poursuivie de plus belle et le dernier effort international pour contrer ce phénomène – une initiative appelée REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) qui a pour but de réduire les émissions liées au déboisement et à la dégradation des forêts – ne semble pas être plus prometteur. Au lieu de protéger les forêts de la planète, la conséquence la plus notoire de ces deux accords a été, ironiquement, la production de piles de rapports d’experts sur papier glacé.

REDD+ a été créée dans le cadre de la Convention-cadre des Nations Unies sur les changements climatiques et l’accord régissant sa mise en œuvre devrait être entériné à la Conférence des Nations Unies sur les changements climatiques à Paris. Or, si les dirigeants mondiaux voulaient vraiment contrer la disparition du couvert forestier, ils devraient plutôt abandonner REDD+ et le remplacer par un mécanisme qui s’attaque aux causes sous-jacentes de la déforestation à grande échelle.

Les défauts de REDD+ sont évidents dans la façon dont est abordé le problème que cette initiative est censée régler. La plupart des projets traitent les populations vivant de la forêt et les petits paysans comme les principaux vecteurs de déforestation. Il semble que les gestionnaires de projets REDD apprécient particulièrement les projets qui visent principalement à restreindre les pratiques agricoles traditionnelles, même s’ils reculent devant les efforts à faire pour s’attaquer aux vraies causes de déforestation : l’expansion de l’agriculture industrielle, les projets d’infrastructures de grande envergure, l’exploitation forestière de grande échelle et une consommation débridée.

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