Woman standing in forest

巴黎的REDD+

柏林—联合国粮农组织启动第一个全球政府间阻止森林流失的项目——热带森林行动计划已经三十年。三十年来,森林采伐之势从未减小,而最新的阻止滥伐措施——被称为“减少滥伐和毁林所致排放”(Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation,REDD+)——看上去也不太可能收到成效。这两个协议远远没有达到保护世界森林的效果,其最邻人瞩目的结果反倒是昂贵咨询报告的层出不穷。

REDD+是联合国气候变化框架公约的一部分,而管理其实施的协定预计将在联合国气候变化巴黎会议上完成。但如果世界领导人认真对待阻止森林流失的问题,就应该放弃REDD+,替之以解决大规模采伐的根本动机的机制。

REDD+的缺陷确凿地表现在它应对它意欲解决的问题的方法上。其绝大多数项目将林居民族和农民视为滥伐的主要群体。REDD项目开发者似乎腿与着重于限制传统农业的项目特别感兴趣,却回避真正的滥伐原因:工业化农业的扩张、大规模基础设施工程、大规模采伐作业以及失控的消费。

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