forest Jordan Siemens/Getty Images

Menanam Kembali Hutan di Dunia

OXFORD – Umat manusia mempunyai hubungan yang rumit dengan hutan. Kita bergantung pada hutan untuk mengatur iklim dan curah hujan, membersihkan udara dan air, menunjang kehidupan berbagai spesies tanaman dan hewan, dan mendukung penghidupan lebih dari satu milyar orang. Namun, kita terus merusak hutan hingga saat ini hanya tersisa setengah dari jumlah hutan yang ada di dunia.

Dampak penggundulan hutan tidak bisa diremehkan. Pepohonan menyerap sejumlah besar karbon dioksida untuk pertumbuhan mereka, sehingga merupakan alat yang penting untuk menyerap emisi rumah kaca – baik dari mobil, pabrik, pembangkit listrik, dan ternak – yang merupakan penyebab perubahan iklim. Jika kita terus-menerus kehilangan lahan hutan, maka tujuan dari Perjanjian Iklim Paris untuk membatasi pemanasan global dibawah dua derajat celsius (dari tingkat dimasa pra-industri) pada tahun 2050 tidak akan tercapai. Bahkan untuk mencapai target itu, kita harus menanam kembali lahan hutan yang telah hilang.            

Terdapat dua pendekatan dalam melakukan reboisasi. Yang pertama adalah dengan tidak menggunakan lahan pertanian dan menunggu lahan tersebut untuk secara alami kembali menjadi hutan. Pendekatan ini tidak membutuhkan banyak biaya, namun membutuhkan waktu puluhan tahun. Sedangkan, pendekatan kedua dilakukan dengan cara yang lebih proaktif, yaitu dengan menanam miliaran pohon baru. 

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