forest Jordan Siemens/Getty Images

Obnova světových lesů

OXFORD – Lidstvo mělo odjakživa s lesy složitý vztah. Jsme na nich závislí z hlediska regulace klimatu a srážek, čistí náš vzduch a vodu, zachovávají spoustu druhů rostlin a zvířat a jsou oporou pro živobytí více než miliardy lidí. Navzdory tomu je nadále ničíme a jsme v bodu, kdy nám zbývá pouze polovina původního celosvětového zalesnění.

Cena za odlesňování může jen těžko být zveličována. Stromy spotřebovávají během růstu velké množství oxidu uhličitého, což z nich činí nepostradatelný nástroj pro absorpci emisí skleníkových plynů – z aut, továren, elektráren a dobytka – které způsobují klimatickou změnu. Pokud budeme nadále přicházet o lesní porost, bude nemožné dosáhnout cíle z Pařížské klimatické smlouvy – snížit globální oteplování do roku 2050 na méně než dva stupně Celsia (nad předprůmyslovou úrovní). Pokud vlastně chceme tohoto cíle opravdu dosáhnout, budeme potřebovat obnovit zásadní množství lesního porostu, který je již pryč.

Jsou dvě cesty, jak lze přistoupit k zalesňování. První z nich je nechat zastarat zemědělskou půdu a počkat, až se přirozeně přemění zpět v les. Tato možnost by příliš nestála, ale trvala by dekády. Druhá možnost je více proaktivní: vysázet miliardy nových stromů.

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