forest Jordan Siemens/Getty Images

重建世界森林

牛津——人类与森林一直是一种棘手的关系。我们靠它们来调节气候和降雨量、清洁空气和水、养活各种植物和动物及支持超过10亿人的生计。但我们不断毁灭它们,以至于现在仅保留了全世界原有森林覆盖的一半左右。

怎样强调砍伐森林的代价都不夸张。树木在生长时会消耗大量二氧化碳,这使它们在吸收能导致气候变化的汽车、工厂、发电站和牲畜所排放的温室气体过程中发挥了重要作用。如果我们继续丧失森林覆盖,就不可能实现巴黎协议所规定的到2050年将全球变暖限制在(高于前工业时代水平)2摄氏度的目标。事实上,为实现这一目标,我们需要恢复已经消失的大量森林覆盖。

重新植树造林有两种方法。第一种是让农业用地逐渐荒废,然后等待它们自然恢复到森林状态。这种方法成本很低,但可能需要几十年才能看到效果。第二种方法更加积极主动:种植成百上千亿棵新的树木。

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