¿Qué es la comunidad internacional?

PARÍS – Pese a que la frase “comunidad internacional” se invoca muy a menudo, su significado exacto –al igual que su origen– es difícil de percibir. Y como lo ha mostrado la reciente intervención de Francia en Mali, esta ambigüedad de significado es la causa de muchos de los problemas actuales más urgentes de política exterior.

Para algunos simplemente no existe una comunidad internacional. Para otros, el término se refiere en un sentido más pragmático a todos los países cuando deciden actuar conjuntamente. Otra definición más precisa comprende todos los países con influencia internacional –es decir, cualquier país cuya identidad y soberanía sean reconocidas, y que decida participar en debates y toma de decisiones globales.

Más allá de la semántica, subyace otra cuestión que tiene más repercusiones y es igualmente ambigua, la del papel y responsabilidad de la comunidad internacional. Así como una definición muy amplia podría socavar la soberanía de un país, una muy limitada –como la que parece prevaler actualmente– permite la violencia y la proliferación de la inestabilidad.

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