Defender la defensa japonesa

El Gobierno y el Consejo Nacional de Seguridad del Japón se proponen revisar el Esbozo de Programa de Defensa Nacional (EPDN) al final de este ańo. En un borrador de los cambios propuestos presentado al Primer Ministro Junichiro Koizumi se asignan tres tareas principales a las Fuerzas de Autodefensa: una reacción eficaz contra las nuevas amenazas, la participación en actividades internacionales de mantenimiento de la paz y la defensa contra una invasión.

La compleja situación actual en materia de seguridad, con ataques terroristas por parte de agentes no estatales que se producen paralelamente a las guerras tradicionales entre Estados, requiere una estrategia ágil e integrada. El proyecto de revisión del EPDN parece reconocerlo, al subrayar la necesidad de unas medidas propias de defensa por parte del Japón, la cooperación mediante la alianza Japón-Estados Unidos y las contribuciones a las misiones multilaterales. Además, el Consejo Nacional de Seguridad ha indicado la necesidad de introducir un nuevo plan para unas fuerzas de defensa flexibles y multifuncionales.

Por desgracia, algunos componentes decisivos de la estrategia de seguridad del Japón que está surgiendo siguen siendo vagos y contradictorios. Por ejemplo, si bien se considera poco probable la amenaza de una invasión, en el Libro Blanco de la Defensa de 2004 se sostiene que “la función primordial” de las Fuerzas de Autodefensa es la de prepararse para lo peor, porque no se puede desarrollar de la noche a la mańana una capacidad defensiva suficiente. Dicho de otro modo, el Japón afirmará claramente su voluntad de defender la nación y prevenir una invasión en combinación con el sistema de seguridad Japón-Estados Unidos.

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