Défendre la défense japonaise

Le gouvernement et le Conseil national de sécurité du Japon projettent de revoir le NDPO (National Defense Program Outline) du pays d'ici la fin de cette année. Une ébauche des changements proposés soumise au premier ministre Junichiro Koizumi attribue trois tâches majeures aux Forces d'autodéfense (FAD) : répondre efficacement aux nouvelles menaces, participer aux activités internationales de maintien de la paix et assurer la défense contre l'invasion.

L'environnement de sécurité complexe actuel, dans lequel les attaques terroristes menées par des acteurs non officiels coexistent avec les guerres traditionnelles entre Etats, exige une stratégie adroite et intégrée. L'ébauche de révision du NDPO semble reconnaître ce fait en mettant l'accent sur les propres efforts de défense du Japon, la coopération par le biais de l'alliance entre le Japon et les Etats-Unis, et les contributions aux missions multilatérales. Le Conseil national de sécurité a en outre souligné la nécessité d'introduire un nouveau plan destiné ŕ créer des forces de défense flexibles et multifonctionnelles.

Malheureusement, les composants clés de la stratégie de sécurité émergente du Japon demeurent vagues et contradictoires. Par exemple, tandis que la probabilité d'une menace d'invasion est jugée faible, le Livre blanc sur la Défense de 2004 soutient que la « fonction la plus fondamentale » des FAD consiste ŕ se préparer au pire car un pouvoir défensif suffisant ne peut pas ętre mis au point en l'espace d'une seule nuit. En d'autres termes, le Japon affirmera clairement sa volonté de défendre la nation et de prévenir une invasion en association avec le systčme de sécurité en place entre le Japon et les Etats-Unis.

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