Descolonizar la zona del franco

DAKAR – Francia tiene que lidiar con una carga de deudas y déficits públicos que llevaron recientemente a Standard ampamp; Poor's a bajarle la calificación crediticia. A pesar de que el riesgo de una recesión aparece como una amenaza, el país se vio obligado a implementar un programa drástico de austeridad. Pero las tribulaciones de Francia también se sienten mucho más allá de sus fronteras, y esto genera rumores de una posible devaluación del franco CFA, la moneda común de la zona del franco, que comprende a 14 países africanos y las Islas Comoras en el Océano Indico.


La zona del franco es, en verdad, un apéndice de la economía francesa. El franco CFA se puede convertir a euros y transferir libremente a Francia, cuyas compañías controlan la mayor parte del sector privado de la zona del franco y reciben la mayoría de sus contratos públicos. En efecto, ésta es la fórmula para una fuga& masiva de capitales a perpetuidad.

El tipo de cambio fijo del franco CFA tiene paridad con el euro y está sobrevaluado para proteger a las compañías francesas de una depreciación del euro. Pero la sobrevaluación de la moneda también subraya la falta de competitividad que obstaculiza la capacidad de los países de la zona del franco de diversificar sus economías, crear valor agregado y desarrollarse. Es un escándalo que todavía tengan que resignar el 50% de sus reservas en moneda extranjera y entregárselas al Tesoro francés como garantía de la convertibilidad limitada del franco CFA y libre transferencia a Francia.

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