Stephen Melkisethian/Flickr

被高估的美国衰落

美国剑桥—随着美国国会选举的临近,关于美国政治制度健康及其全球领导力未来的争论日嚣尘上,一些人拿党派僵局作为美国衰落的证据。但情况真的这么糟糕吗?

根据政治学家萨拉·宾德(Sarah Binder)的看法,自十九世纪末以来,美国两大政党的意识形态分歧从未向现在那么大。但是,尽管面临着僵局,但第111届国会仍通过了大型财政刺激、医疗改革、金融监管、一项武器控制条约以及军队同性恋政策修改。显然,美国政治制度不会衰亡(特别是在党派僵局具有周期性特征的情况下)。

尽管如此,今天的国会仍饱受立法能力不足的困扰。尽管意识形态一致性在过去二十年中增加了一倍,从占公众的10%升高到21%,但大部分美国人并非一边倒的保守派或自由派,他们希望他们的代表保守和自由兼而有之。但是,政党的意识形态一致性自20世纪70年代以来就一直在增长。

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